Another fMRI imaging study of brain connectivity in subjects with autism is reported in the Oxford journal Cerebral Cortex, October 12 2010. I have highlighted the article,Decreased Interhemispheric Functional Connectivity in Autism, abstract description of the study's autism participants .... all persons with High Functioning Autism. Once again, the study which puports to draw conclusions about "autism" presumably referring to all of the Pervasive Developmental, or Autism Spectrum Disorders, excludes those most severely affected by autism disorders:
Decreased Interhemispheric Functional Connectivity in Autism
The cortical underconnectivity theory asserts that reduced long-range functional connectivity might contribute to a neural mechanism for autism. We examined resting-state blood oxygen level–dependent interhemispheric correlation in 53 males with high-functioning autism and 39 typically developing males from late childhood through early adulthood. By constructing spatial maps of correlation between homologous voxels in each hemisphere, we found significantly reduced interhemispheric correlation specific to regions with functional relevance to autism: sensorimotor cortex, anterior insula, fusiform gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and superior parietal lobule. Observed interhemispheric connectivity differences were better explained by diagnosis of autism than by potentially confounding neuropsychological metrics of language, IQ, or handedness. Although both corpus callosal volume and gray matter interhemispheric connectivity were significantly reduced in autism, no direct relationship was observed between them, suggesting that structural and functional metrics measure different aspects of interhemispheric connectivity. In the control but not the autism sample, there was decreasing interhemispheric correlation with subject age. Greater differences in interhemispheric correlation were seen for more lateral regions in the brain. These findings suggest that long-range connectivity abnormalities in autism are spatially heterogeneous and that transcallosal connectivity is decreased most in regions with functions associated with behavioral abnormalities in autism. Autism subjects continue to show developmental differences in interhemispheric connectivity into early adulthood.
on the study in Study: fMRI reveals functional differences in autistic patients and included the study authors' qualifications that the study conclusions, despite the titles of the Cerebral Cortex report and HealthImaging.com article, could not be extended to Low Functioning Autistic patients.
The authors acknowledged that limiting their study to high-functioning young autistic males restricted their findings from being extended to females, younger children or lower-function ASD patients. Nevertheless, Anderson and colleagues emphasized that “Our finding adds to growing evidence that abnormalities of interhemispheric connectivity in autism are widespread but regionally specific and related to cognitive and neurological impairments commonly found in the disorder.” The authors posited that their findings highlight MRI as a potential tool to assist physicians in diagnosing and treating autism.
In one breath the study authors acknowledge that the exclusion of low functioning autistic patients restricted their findings from being extended to those patients (or to other excluded groups, including females and younger children). In the next breath though, and in the title of their report and magazine articles the study findings are reported as being applicable to autism generally.
This is not the first study to exclude low functioning or intellectually disabled autistic subjects from "autism" studies. Prominent autism researcher, and DSM-5 panelist, Catherine Lord has identified the tendency to exclude autistic subjects with severe to profound intellectual disabilities:
"However, research in ASD has tended to use overwhelmingly White, middle to upper middle class samples, and has often excluded children with multiple disabilities and/or severe to profound intellectual disabilities".
The lip service qualifying statement in this recent fMRI study report did not preclude the authors from making generalizations about autism as found across the spectrum notwithstanding the exclusion of low functioning autistic persons from the study. Articles commenting on this and other studies may or may not repeat that qualification. Most certainly all will be accompanied by headlines reporting new "autism" findings. Low functioning autistics are routinely excluded from major media institutions that like to focus on the barely affected, very high functioning persons with Aspergers or HFA, the Ari Ne'emans, Alex Planks, John Elder Robisons, Michelle Dawsons and Temple Grandins.
As in the popular media, so too in "scholarly", "scientific" research. "Autism" just doesn't mean what it use to.
Alleged "autism" spectrum research is anything but representative of the entire autism "spectrum" of disorders.