Fetal cells from abortion were utilized decades ago to create initial cell lines for development of vaccinations. The unresolved issue of human DNA residuals that are present in the vaccinations, is something that only one group has begun to research. Most in the scientific community are assured that the presence of human DNA residuals in vaccinations is a moot reality due to the intramuscular route of injection. However, residual DNA risks are given some attention in Special Considerations for Continuous Cell Lines (link):
Residual DNA might be a risk to your final product because of oncogenic and/or infectivity potential. There are several potential mechanisms by which residual DNA could be oncogenic, including the integration and expression of encoded oncogenes or insertional mutagenesis following DNA integration. Residual DNA also might be capable of transmitting viral infections if retroviral proviruses, integrated copies of DNA viruses, or extrachromosomal genomes are present. (Dr. Mercola, FDA)
A probabilistic model for risk assessment of residual host cell DNA in biological products reads that it is ...possible that the residual DNA could transmit activated oncogenes and/or latent infectious viral genomes to subjects receiving the product, and induce oncogenic or infective events.
Circa 1970's chromosomal abnormalities were researched, with regard to those vaccination cell lines initially developed from aborted fetal material - In the course of monitoring culture conditions, a high level of chromosome abnormalities was observed in senescent WI-38 human embryo fibroblasts. This report describes the specificity of these aberrations and those in senescent MRC-5 embryo fibroblasts. The chromosome abnormalities of the cell lines were not stable in presentation through successive generations and a progressive decrease in the stability of sequences or enzymes seemed to be present. (link)
More recently the focus of the field is on variables in culture history and genetic background of the lines, and this is because it is still not known why specific lines have different levels of robustness and proclivities to differentiate into specific lineages.
Research never concludes with regard to the ongoing nature of inquiry about the Genetic Stability of cell lines. MRC-5 is one of the cell lines created from decades ago aborted fetal material and utilized in vaccinations. MRC-5 continues to be the subject of research and laboratory manipulations and is proposed as a valuable system for the large-scale production of live-attenuated DEN vaccines, because MRC-5 prone to less mutation than other cell lines. Cell lines require a lot of maintenance, they are not immortal; they age and die.
One breakdown provides types of stem cells:
Prenatal Stem Cells (embryonic + fetal stem cells)
Postnatal Stem Cells (umbilical cord + placental)
Adult Cells (post natal + full grown)
Within the types are differing potency factors:
Totipotency (embyo 5-7 days old)
Pluripotency (embryo eight weeks or older, umbilical cord, placenta, adult)
Pluripotent human germ cells (embryo six weeks or less)
Multipotency (embryo eight weeks or older, umbilical cord, placenta, adult)
cellmedicine points out that there is a danger with regard to use of embryonic cells, that of cancer. Questions arise as to why the media has chosen to leave out important elements in the stem cell debate.
In recent years, the media have given very little coverage of placental and umbilical cord stem cells, emphasizing instead the advantages of embryonic stem cells and the disadvantages of adult stem cells. Similarly, media reports have focused very little attention on the disadvantages of embryonic stem cells, or on the advantages of adult stem cells.
Regarding embryonic cells, An abstract referring to California's Proposition 71 proposes ...to investigate mechanisms underlying genetic instability in cultured human embryonic stem cells. The FDA recommends the establishment of... the genetic stability of the plasmid DNA. Guidance for Industry: Considerations for Plasmid DNA Vaccines for Infectious Disease Indications
Extensive lab manipulations are currently at play with regard to continued vaccination development. Making determinations about how best to manipulate life's ingredients is not an enviable position for anyone, especially when one considers the risks involved with every decision. Some have pointed out that the hot and heavy push into research and development for the next best thing in treatment for illness - means every contingency cannot be factually determinable as far as what the outcome might be from many resulting new products use - on us. Vaccination safety determinations, at times, appear to be based on theory and probability projection and only cursory study. Safety determinations about some vaccinations have been compared to some type of new religion based on faith about what has yet to actually be seen; this belief system is said to be on the lookout for as many converts as possible.
Environmental and non-target effects:
From: Genetically engineered vaccines ‘Inherently unpredictable and possibly dangerous’: ...examples of scientists defending the total innocuousness of vaccines, without taking environmental and non-target effects into consideration, are numerous. Many seem totally religious in their belief, and prescribe strategies to convert (the public and politicians)...
Hindsight offers effect examples:
- During the human small pox eradication campaign, vaccinia virus vectored GE vaccines (VV) found a new host species and established themselves in a new reservoir, namely the buffalo.
- It is a general experience that inserts may change the virulence and host preferences of viruses.
- MRV (Malignant rabbit virus) seems to be a recombinant between SFV (Shope fibroma virus) and myxoma virus. It seems to have arisen by mixed infection in wild rabbits. MRV causes an invasive malignant disease and profound immunosuppression in adult rabbits, much more serious than the diseases caused by any of the parental viruses. MRV has received more than 90% of its DNA from one parent (myxoma virus) in a coupled recombination and transposition event. The MRV story exemplifies the unpredictability of virus recombinants with regard to biological characteristics and virulence.
- A recombinant field isolate of capripoxvirus has also been detected. The new virus was the result of recombination between a capripoxvirus vaccine strain and a naturally occurring virus strain. (link)
A recent GlaxoSmithKline mistake took the most profound twist and turns. An academic research team discovered the porcine circovirus 1 (PVC1) material in GlaxoSmithKlines (then FDA approved) Rotarix in 2009; as a happenstance thing. FDA tests then confirmed the presence of extraneous viral DNA in Rotarix. As things played out the Rotarix mistake became more like a clinical trial in retrospect...; because the (PVC1) tainted Rotarix users (infants) had actually unknowingly tested it already and no obvious harm came of it! (link to Ed Rybicki) GlaxoSmithKline took their mistake and made lemonade by pointing out that no ill effects had resulted from the accidental tainting. Around the same time, Merck’s Rotateq was also found to contain both PCV-1 AND PCV-2 DNA (...even as it had already been FDA approved). In no time at all an FDA advisory panel determined that the PCV contamination didn’t appear to be harmful to humans and the vaccines’ benefits outweighed any theoretical risk. Also pointed out was the fact that PCV isn’t known to cause illness in humans, and the virus is found in everyday meat products that you and I eat with no resulting disease or illness...no harm, no foul.
Genetic instability and chromosomal abnormalities occur with long term culture of stem cells. Many permanent human embryonic stem cell lines end up with genetic and epigenetic variations which bring genetic stability concerns. Human embryonic stem cells: Problems and perspectives The previously mentioned California abstract states that A major safety issue for plasmid DNA vectors is the potential for integration of the vector DNA into host genomic DNA...
Derivation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines states that: It is still not known why specific lines have different levels of robustness and proclivities to differentiate into specific lineages, although variables in culture history and genetic background of the lines will likely play a large part (Allegrucci and Young, 2006). How such variables affect these innate characteristics of the lines is currently the focus in the field.
International Meeting For Autism Research has recently pointed to the fact that ...DNA fragments (250bp) have higher probability of entering the nucleus than longer lengths. Studies have also demonstrated that intramuscularly injected naked DNA can be transported to the brain, in tact, via retrograde axonal transport in motor neurons. Potentially, exogenous DNA can integrate via homologous recombination in genomic regions called ‘recombination hotspots’ - once inside the nucleus. Intra-species DNA integration by homologous recombination, occurs with a probability a billion times greater; than inter-species homologous recombination. Integration of short human DNA fragments has the potential to contribute to various human diseases, including autism.
Most Researchers allude to, and seem unimpressed with, the affect of known extrachromosomal presence following muscular injection of vaccinations...Plasmid vectors have been widely used for DNA vaccines and gene therapy. Following intramuscular injection, the plasmid that persists is extrachromosomal and integration into host DNA, if it occurs at all, is negligible. The researchers are actually interested in finding ways to further integration into host DNA - for cell gene therapy, among other applications. They offer the fact that gene delivery strategies based on viral vectors are currently the most efficient - but then offer a hedge on that bet - limited cargo capacity, host immune response, and the risk of insertional mutagenesis are limiting factors and of concern. (link)
The cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one promoter used to drive over-expression of transcription factors, aka sequence-specific DNA-binding factor. The promoter is necessary to create excessive expression of transcriptions factors by producing too much of the factor's effect; there are many types of promoters. Currently, researchers are working to identify more rational choices of promoters according to targeted need and for a more suitable outcome. It appears that...Most promoters have fairly consistent strengths across different cell types, but the CMV promoter can vary considerably from cell type to cell type. (link)
There is evidence suggesting that CMV upregulates expression of interferons. CMV infection of neonatal and embryonic brain cells both in vitro and in vivo induces a robust expression of IFN-stimulated genes. (link) Interferons are released by lymphocytes in response to the presence viruses, bacteria, parasites or tumor cells. IFN induced depression is currently being researched because ...the use of IFN can result in the development of neuropsychiatric side effects and sickness behavior, such as depression, irritability and fatigue. (link) IFN treatment is prescribed for those with chronic hepatitis C; and patient response to IFN treatment is the reason for researching the patients resulting induced depression - after IFN treatment.
From Cytomegalovirus Induces Interferon-Stimulated Gene Expression and Is Attenuated by Interferon in the Developing Brain: Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a double-stranded DNA virus of the betaherpesvirus family, is considered the most common infectious agent that causes permanent neurological dysfunction of the developing brain. Human CMV (hCMV) infections in the developing brain can lead to mental retardation, epilepsy, microcephaly, microgyria, hydrocephalus, and deafness. The developing brain is particularly sensitive to CMV infection due to both the immature state of the systemic immune system and a preference of CMV for developing glia and neurons. CMV in the mature brain is less of a concern, except in immunocompromised individuals.
I don't know if I like the use of CMV as a promoter in development of vaccinations, but I am positive those in the field will say that I have over simplified and there is nothing to be concerned about...In trying to come to an understanding about the issue of vaccinations, I have read many research results. What I have found is that every time a new manipulation is activated, that activation results in a multitude of questions - not yet able to be answered, but assuredly the subject of more ongoing research. I am concerned about the presence of human DNA residuals in vaccinations...the concern will remain.
The only group that I know of that is looking into the human DNA residuals' presence in vaccinations as a possible contributor to regressive autism is Sound Choice Pharmaceutical. While most researchers consider the human DNA residual issue to be a pesky issue at best, Sound Choice is pursuing; measuring residual human DNA in vaccines, predicting sites of DNA insertion via homologous recombination (HR) and measure insertion rates, modeling brain cell function effects, and epidemiologic study on children injected with vaccines containing the human DNA residuals. Puget Sound Buisness Journal has recently highlighted Sound Choice's involvement in the research, due to the fact that significant grant money had been awarded by one of Washington's largest grant foundations.
Fetal material from abortion appears to be a growing commodity - for the pharma, cosmetic and anti aging industries - See Commercial Markets Created by Abortion: Profiting from the Fetal Distribution Chain about that. It also appears that fetal material is also used for discovery of new food additives...
...Over the past decade the use of aborted fetal material has slowly, almost imperceptibly, seeped into and become routine at many stages of drug discovery, development and commercialization, to the point where aborted fetal material is now being used to discover new food additives and flavor enhancers.
Just one university filled 4,400 requests from biomedical scientist for aborted fetal tissues and cell lines in 2009, thus proving that aborted fetal material has come to be a commodity in our society. Doing the math, one can present the possibility that 1.9 million requests for aborted fetal tissue may be filled in the US each year. The above linked paper goes into detail with regard to how abortion clinics provide the fetal material.
Sound Choice Pharmaceutical's most recent newsletter has brought focus, Confronting Anatomy's Nazi Past; Studies uncover a symbiosis between the Nazi regime, which needed to dispose of executed prisoners, and anatomical institutes, which sought bodies for study. The writing points out how Nazi prisoners were used to replaced the chickens used by a scientist for research. The prisoners were told about their sentence and the execution was then planned so that the scientist...
...could obtain samples, and ultimately the corpses, for his studies on stress and ovulation.
The prisoners were executed early in the morning, between 4:30 and 5:00 am. The correlation with current early morning abortions that transpire in our own country is not lost on Dr. Diesher, who points out...
As a sidewalk counselor I used to wonder why abortions were done so early in the morning. If the abortuary wanted to avoid attention and sidewalk counselors, one would think they would schedule the abortions during the day when we were at work, rather than for 6:30 to 7:30 am. Perhaps, like the Nazi executions, the timing is set for the convenience of the biomedical scientists who need to receive fresh tissue early in the morning in order to process it and finish their experiments by a reasonable time in the afternoon or evening.
This seems to be possible, since even with the abortions that provided material for the initial development of cell lines used in vaccinations, the fetal material needed to be either preserved or provided to the scientist within minutes after the abortion - in order to be viable for the cell line development / use.