Food and Nutrition

The Dangers of Consuming Too Much Salt

| by FDA

Everyone needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride,
salt helps maintain the body's balance of fluids. Salt also functions
in many foods as a preservative, by helping to prevent spoilage and
keeping certain foods safe to eat. But nearly all Americans consume
more salt than they need, according to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for
Americans. These guidelines are published every five years by the U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of
Agriculture.

The natural salt in food accounts for about 10 percent of total
intake, on average, according to the guidelines. The salt we add at the
table or while cooking adds another 5 to 10 percent. About 75 percent
of our total salt intake comes from salt added to processed foods by
manufacturers and salt that cooks add to foods at restaurants and other
food service establishments.

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Q. What are the health effects of too much salt?

A. In many people, salt contributes to high blood pressure. High
blood pressure makes the heart work harder and can lead to heart
disease, stroke, heart failure, and kidney disease.

Q. What is the daily recommended amount of sodium for adults?

A. The amount of salt in a food is listed as “sodium” on the
Nutrition Facts Panel of food labels. The Dietary Guidelines recommend
that the general population consume no more than 2,300 milligrams of
sodium a day (about a teaspoon of table salt). Most food labels
shorten the word “milligrams” to “mg.”

Some people are more sensitive to the effects of salt than others.
The guidelines also recommend that, in general, these populations
consume no more than 1,500 milligrams.

These populations include

  • African Americans
  • People with high blood pressure, kidney disease, or diabetes
  • People who are middle-age or older

The exceptions to this are people whose doctors have put them on a
diet that requires even less sodium because of a medical condition.
Always follow your doctor’s recommendation about how much sodium you
can have daily.

Q. What steps can I take to lower my salt intake?

A.

  • Eat more fresh fruits and vegetables.
  • Consume foods that are rich in potassium. Potassium can help blunt
    the effects of sodium on blood pressure. The recommended intake of
    potassium for adolescents and adults is 4,700 mg/day. Potassium-rich
    foods include leafy, green vegetables and fruits from vines.
  • Flavor food with pepper and other herbs and spices instead of salt.
  • Choose unsalted snacks.
  • Read food labels and choose foods low in sodium.

Q. How can I tell if a food is low in sodium or high in sodium?

A. The Nutrition Facts Panel that appears on food labels also lists
the “% Daily Value” for sodium. Look for the abbreviation “%DV” to
find it. Foods listed as 5% or less for sodium are low in sodium.
Foods listed as 6% to 20% contain a moderate amount of sodium.
Anything above 20% for sodium is considered high. Try to select foods
that provide 5% or less for sodium, per serving.

Q. Are salt substitutes safe?

A. Many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride, which could be
harmful to people with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes,
kidney disease, and heart disease. Check with your doctor before using
salt substitutes.

Q. What is FDA's role in regulating salt?

A.

  • Salt is regulated by FDA as a “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS)
    ingredient. A GRAS substance is one that has a long history of safe,
    common use in foods, or that is determined to be safe based on proven
    science. These substances need not be approved by FDA prior to being
    used.
  • FDA requires that sodium content be stated on food labels. FDA has
    implemented several labeling requirements related to sodium content of
    foods.
  • FDA sets criteria for nutrient-content claims that manufacturers
    make about foods. Examples are "low sodium" and "reduced in sodium".
  • FDA doesn't have regulatory authority to require manufacturers to
    change the amounts of salt in processed foods at this time, but the
    agency is conducting research in this area. In 2007, the Center for
    Science in the Public Interest submitted a Citizen's Petition to FDA
    requesting that the agency make changes to the regulatory status of
    salt, including requiring limits on the amount of salt in processed
    food. In November 2007, FDA held a public hearing in College Park, Md.,
    on the agency's policies regarding salt in food, and solicited comments
    from the public about future regulatory approaches.

Q. What was the outcome of FDA's public hearing on salt?
A. The public comment period ended in August 2008, and the agency is
reviewing comments. FDA is also a sponsor of an Institute of Medicine
(IOM) report on reducing sodium intake, which is due out in 2010. IOM
has convened a committee to review and make recommendations about
various ways to reduce salt intake. The strategies under consideration
include actions by food manufacturers, by public health professionals
and consumer educators, and at the government level, such as special
initiatives and regulatory options.