Health

Important Tips for Vegetarian Health

| by USDA

Vegetarian diets can meet all the recommendations for nutrients. The
key is to consume a variety of foods and the right amount of foods to
meet your calorie needs. Follow the food group recommendations for your
age, sex, and activity level to get the right amount of food and the
variety of foods needed for nutrient adequacy. Nutrients that
vegetarians may need to focus on include protein, iron, calcium, zinc,
and vitamin B12.

 
Nutrients to focus on for vegetarians

  • Protein
    has many important functions in the body and is essential for growth
    and maintenance. Protein needs can easily be met by eating a variety of
    plant-based foods. Combining different protein sources in the same meal
    is not necessary. Sources of protein for vegetarians include beans,
    nuts, nut butters, peas, and soy products (tofu, tempeh, veggie
    burgers). Milk products and eggs are also good protein sources for
    lacto-ovo vegetarians.
  • Iron functions primarily as a carrier of oxygen in the
    blood. Iron sources for vegetarians include iron-fortified breakfast
    cereals, spinach, kidney beans, black-eyed peas, lentils, turnip
    greens, molasses, whole wheat breads, peas, and some dried fruits
    (dried apricots, prunes, raisins).
  • Calcium is used for building bones and teeth and in
    maintaining bone strength. Sources of calcium for vegetarians include
    fortified breakfast cereals, soy products (tofu, soy-based beverages),
    calcium-fortified orange juice, and some dark green leafy vegetables
    (collard greens, turnip greens, bok choy, mustard greens). Milk
    products are excellent calcium sources for lacto vegetarians.
  • Zinc is necessary for many biochemical reactions and also
    helps the immune system function properly. Sources of zinc for
    vegetarians include many types of beans (white beans, kidney beans, and
    chickpeas), zinc-fortified breakfast cereals, wheat germ, and pumpkin
    seeds. Milk products are a zinc source for lacto vegetarians.
  • Vitamin B12 is found in animal products and some fortified foods. Sources of vitamin B12 for vegetarians include milk products, eggs, and foods that have been fortified with vitamin B12. These include breakfast cereals, soy-based beverages, veggie burgers, and nutritional yeast.

Tips for Vegetarians

  • Build meals around protein sources that are naturally low in fat,
    such as beans, lentils, and rice. Don’t overload meals with high-fat
    cheeses to replace the meat.
  • Calcium-fortified soy-based beverages can provide calcium in
    amounts similar to milk. They are usually low in fat and do not contain
    cholesterol.
  • Many foods that typically contain meat or poultry can be made
    vegetarian. This can increase vegetable intake and cut saturated fat
    and cholesterol intake. Consider:
    • pasta primavera or pasta with marinara or pesto sauce
    • veggie pizza
    • vegetable lasagna
    • tofu-vegetable stir fry
    • vegetable lo mein
    • vegetable kabobs
    • bean burritos or tacos
  • A variety of vegetarian products look (and may taste) like their
    non-vegetarian counterparts, but are usually lower in saturated fat and
    contain no cholesterol.
    • For breakfast, try soy-based sausage patties or links.
    • Rather than hamburgers, try veggie burgers. A variety of kinds are available, made with soy beans, vegetables, and/or rice.
    • Add
      vegetarian meat substitutes to soups and stews to boost protein without
      adding saturated fat or cholesterol. These include tempeh (cultured
      soybeans with a chewy texture), tofu, or wheat gluten (seitan).
    • For barbecues, try veggie or garden burgers, soy hot dogs, marinated tofu or tempeh, and veggie kabobs.
    • Make bean burgers, lentil burgers, or pita halves with falafel (spicy ground chick pea patties).
    • Some
      restaurants offer soy options (texturized vegetable protein) as a
      substitute for meat, and soy cheese as a substitute for regular cheese.

  • Most restaurants can accommodate vegetarian modifications to menu
    items by substituting meatless sauces, omitting meat from stir-fries,
    and adding vegetables or pasta in place of meat. These substitutions
    are more likely to be available at restaurants that make food to order.
  • Many Asian and Indian restaurants offer a varied selection of vegetarian dishes.

For more information, check out the USDA National Agriculture Library's Vegetarian Nutrition Resource List.